CHINESE INNER EAST ASIA TO 1949
Christopher P. Atwood, Central Eurasian Studies, Indiana University
Time: 1:25-2:15 MWF
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In this course we will look at the history of the Mongols, Uygurs, Kazaks, and Tibetans as they came under the rule first of China’s Qing dynasty (1636-1912), and then of the succeeding Republic of China (1911-1949). While conventional accounts often stress the relatively long-term, if somewhat variable nature of Chinese suzerainty over these peoples, the Qing dynasty in fact was the first empire centered on China to control all of these border lands. The course will focus on how this new experience of rule from China proper influenced the political, social, and cultural life of the Inner Asian nationalities. We will look at how the New Policies fundamentally changed the basis of Beijing’s rule in Inner Asia, and the effects of the 1911 revolution that established the Republic of China.
We will also concentrate on the rise of nationalist intelligentsias among these peoples and the varying domestic and foreign influences on its composition and ideology. Finally we will examine how they responded to the revolutionary activities of the Soviet Union, the Japanese occupation, and the victory of the Chinese Communists in the Chinese Civil War.
Throughout the course we will seek to understand the broader issues of ethnicity, nationalism, tradition, and modernization in a multinational context. We will both interpret the data in terms of theories of nationalism and ethnicity and critique these theories by means of the data from the Inner Asian case.
All books for reading are on reserve at the undergraduate reading room of the Main Library. Articles are on file behind the desk. All material may be checked out for three hours and over night (after 9:00 P.M.). Undergraduates are required to read only those readings labeled undergraduate. Graduates must read those readings and all those marked graduate.
Undergraduates will take midterm and final exams which will consist of identifications drawn from a list of major persons, places, institutions, organizations, and events. They will also write a take-home final answering one interpretive question that draws on class readings and lectures. Graduates will have a mid-term exam and a final exam with identifications and essay question(s). They will also a research paper due at the final session of the class (Dec. 12). NO incompletes will be accepted without very good reason! This is for your own good!
Grades will be based on the mid-term exam (30%), final exam (30%), and research paper (40%). As much as half a grade point in the final grade will be subtracted for poor attendance or poor classroom participation.
Week 1: Geography and the politics of ethnicity
Undergrad reading: P. Gaubatz, Beyond the Great Wall, pp. 1-84.
Graduate reading: P. Gaubatz, Beyond the Great Wall, 123-189.
Week 2: Rise of the Qing empire in Inner Asia.
Undergrad reading: M. Sanjdorj, Manchu-Chinese Colonial Rule in Northern Mongolia, pp. 31-84, 97-103.
Grad: M. Sanjdorj, Manchu-Chinese Colonial Rule in Northern Mongolia, all.
Week 3: Xinjiang under Qing rule
Undergrad: D. Borei, “Economic Implications of Empire”
Graduate: T. Saguchi, “Kashgaria”
Week 4: Tibetan Plateau under Qing rule
Undergrad: M. Goldstein, History of Modern Tibet, 1-37.
Grad: R. Ekvall, Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border; Tashi Tsering, “Ñag-ro Á Mgon-po Rnam-rgyal”
Week 5: Rebellion in Xinjiang and the Ya‘qub Beg Regime
Undergrad: Cambridge History of China, vol. 11 (2), 203-245.
Week 6: Intellectual Developments in Inner Mongolia
Undergrad: J. G. Hangin, Köke Sudur (The Blue Chronicle), 1-46; Sechin Jagchid, “Prince Gungsangnorbu and Inner Mongolian Modernization”
Grad: J. G. Hangin, Köke Sudur (The Blue Chronicle), all.
Week 7: The New Policies in Mongolia and Tibet
Undergrad: Elliot Sperling, “The Chinese in K’ams”; S. Jagchid, “The Yigu Episode and its Repercussions”
Grad: S.A.M. Adshead, Province and Politics in Late Imperial China, 43-73; R. Des Forges, Hsi-liang and the Chinese National Revolution, 1-14, 36-46, 72-82, 154-159.
Week 8: The 1911 Revolution
Undergrad: T. Nakami, “The Minority’s Groping.”
Grad: Goldstein, History of Modern Tibet, 41-138; Adshead, Province and Politics in Late Imperial China, 74-104.
Topic for Paper Due October 20
Midterm Examination: in class, Oct. 24
Week 9: The early Republic and the nationalist intelligentsia in Xinjiang
Undergrad: I. Svanberg, “The Nomadism of the Orta ð üz Kazaks.”
Grad: Gaubatz, Beyond the Great Wall, 85-122; A. Forbes, Muslims and Warlords, intro and chapter 1
Week 10: China’s nationalist revolution and the Inner Mongolian nationalists
Undergrad: C. Atwood, “National Party and Local Politics in Ordos”
Grad: C. Humphrey, Shamans and Elders, 1-75, 320-364.
Week 11: Developments in Tibet; Japanese Occupation in Inner Mongolia
Undergrad: K. Dhondup, “Gedun Chophel”; P. Hyer and S. Jagchid, Biography of a Mongolian Living Buddha, esp. 123-197
Grad: Goldstein, History of Modern Tibet, 146-212, 449-463.
Week 12: Rise and Fall of Sheng Shicai, nationality definition in Xinjiang
Undergrad: Linda Benson, Ili Rebellion, chapters 1-3.
Grad: Forbes, Muslims and Warlords, chapters 2-5, app. II; Justin Rudelson, “Uighur Historiography and Uighur Ethnic Nationalism.”
Week 13: The Ili Rebellion
Undergrad: Doak Barnett, China on the Eve of Communist Takeover, chapter 17; Benson, Ili Rebellion, chapter 4
Grad: Forbes, Muslims and Warlords, chapter 6, apps. III, IV.
Week 14: Inner Mongolia in the Chinese Civil War; Forming Communist minority policy
Undergrad: Barnett, China on the Eve, chapters 13 and 14.
Grad: Atwood, “East Mongolian Revolution and the Chinese Communists”
Week 15: The Chinese Communist victory in Xinjiang and Eastern Tibet
Undergrad: Benson, Ili Rebellion, chapters 5-8; Barnett, China on the Eve, chapters 15 and 16.
Grad: Forbes, Muslims and Warlords, chapter 7; M. Stevenson, “Role of the Traditional Tibetan Leadership”; H. Stoddard, “The Long Life of rDo-sbis dGe-bšes Šes-rab rGya-mcho”
Piper Rae Gaubatz. Beyond the Great Wall: Urban Form and Transformation on the Chinese Frontiers. Stanford; Stanford University Press, 1996.
M. Sanjdorj, trans. Urgunge Onon. Manchu-Chinese Colonial Rule in Northern Mongolia. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1980.
Toru Saguchi, “Kashgaria,” Acta Asiatica 34 (1978), 61-78.
Dorothy Borei, “Economic Implications of Empire-Building: The Case of Xinjiang ” Central and Inner Asian Studies 5 (1991), 22-37.
Melvyn C. Goldstein. History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkeley; University of California Press, 1989.
Robert B. Ekvall. Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border. Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 1939--reprinted 1977.
Tashi Tsering, “Ñag-ro Á Mgon-po Rnam-rgyal: A 19th Century Khams-pa Warrior” in Barbara Nimri Aziz and Matthew Kapstein, eds., Soundings in Tibetan Civilization. New Delhi; Manohar Publications, 1985.
Cambridge History of China , vol. 11 (2), 203-245--
John Gombojab Hangin. Köke Sudur (The Blue Chronicle): A Study of the First Mongolian Historical Novel by Injannasi. Wiesbaden; Otto Harrassowitz, 1973.
Sechin Jagchid, “Prince Gungsangnorbu and Inner Mongolian Modernization” in Essays in Mongolian Studies. Provo, Utah; David M. Kennedy Center for International Studies, 1988, pp. 207-233.
Roger DesForges. Hsi-liang and the Chinese National Revolution. New Haven; Yale University Press, 1973.
S.A.M. Adshead. Province and Politics in Late Imperial China: Viceregal Government in Szechuan, 1898-1911. London; Curzon Press, 1984.
Sechin Jagchid, “The Yigu Episode and its Repercussions” in Edward H. Kaplan and Donald W. Whisenhunt, eds., Opuscula Altaica. Bellingham; Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington U., 1994, pp. 349-370.
Elliot Sperling, “The Chinese Venture in K’ams, 1904-1911, and the Role of Chao Erh-feng,” The Tibet Journal vol. 1, no. 2 (April/June, 1976), 10-36.
Tatsuo Nakami, “The Minority’s Groping: Further Light on Khaisan and Udai,” Ajia Afurika gengo bunka kenkyu 20 (1980), 106-120.
Andrew Forbes, Muslims and Warlordsin Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Xinjiang, 1911-1949. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Ingvar Svanberg, “The Nomadism of the Orta ð üz Kazaks in Xinjiang, 1911-1949” in Linda Benson and Ingvar Svanberg, eds., The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Uppsala; Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1988.
Caroline Humphrey. Shamans and Elders: Experience, Knowledge, and Power Among the Daur Mongols. Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1996.
Christopher P. Atwood, “National Party and Local Politics in Ordos,” Journal of Asian History 26 (1992), 1-30.
K. Dhondup, “Gedun Chophel: The Man Behind the Legend,” Tibetan Review, vol. 13, no. 10 (October, 1978), 10-18.
Paul Hyer and Sechin Jagchid. A Mongolian Living Buddha: Biography of the Kanjurwa Khutugtu. Albany; State University of New York Press, 1983.
Justin Rudelson, “Uighur Historiography and Uighur Ethnic Nationalism,” in Ingvar Svanberg, ed., Ethnicity, Minorities and Cultural Encounters. Uppsala; Center for Multiethnic Research, 1991, 63-82.
Linda Benson. Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang, 1944-1949. Armonk; M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1990.
A. Doak Barnett. China on the Eve of Communist Takeover. New York; Frederic A. Praeger, 1963.
Christopher P. Atwood, “The East Mongolian Revolution and the Chinese Communists,” Mongolian Studies 15 (1992), 7-83.
M. Stevenson, “Role of the Traditional Tibetan Leadership in A mdo Reb Gong (Huangnan) After 1949.” Paper Presented at the Amdo Conference, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., May, 1997.
Heather Stoddard, “The Long Life of rDo-sbis dGe-bšes Šes-rab rGya-mcho (1884-1968),” in Helga Uebach and Jampa L. Panglung, ed., Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 4th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Munich; Kommission fur Zentralasiatische Studien, 1988, pp. 465-471.