Additional Documents: Selections from the Work of Gu Ruopu
Themes and Goals
This unit explores women’s roles in the literary traditions of East Asia, paying special attention to women’s important contributions to the pre-modern literary canons of China and Japan. The readings have been chosen to acquaint students with a range of female voices and activities as they are reflected in East Asian poems and diaries.
The selected texts represent three important historical moments:
Reading these selections should help students see that despite social constraints, women expressed themselves in ways that still speak to us today. These voices from distant times and places remain fresh and engaging because they express broad human concerns that continue to play a part in our everyday lives.
The first two sections should make students sensitive to the enduring human preoccupation with love. This is, of course, not likely to be news to college students, but it is sometimes news to them that people thought about similar things “back then.” The comparative opportunities guide them to a sense of where and how culture affects the expression of romantic sentiments. For the study of the Shijing in particular, the frequency of the female voice in these ancient poems is an important marker of the recognition that women’s lives mattered, even in rigidly organized early societies. For the Japanese texts, students should understand that the predominance of great women writers testifies to one of the high points of world literary history, a moment when female sensibilities set a standard of excellence that has yet to be exceeded. For the study of GU Ruopu, the goal is to encourage students to read carefully and form opinions about the personalities and the circumstances of talented women who spoke their feelings in poetry and (notably in this case) prose. Students may find it productive to compare the experiences of learned women during the Ming with those of early modern French salonierres and the “bluestockings” of eighteenth-century England.
Audiences and Uses
These readings and exercises were developed for a general education course in world literature. They could be included in any introductory level literature course at the high school or college level, or as supplementary materials in an introduction to Women’s Studies, general writing, or a broad history course, and are addressed to students with little experience of poetry or of cultures and time periods other than their own.
The unit is designed to be useful to a wide variety of undergraduate courses, including but not limited to:
The three sections can be used together, or instructors may pick and choose based on amount of the time available. If used together, the material is likely to require three 55-minute class sessions. In a comparative literature class, units may be assigned in tandem with works by writers from the West, as suggested below.
Section I: Selections from the Shijing
Instructor’s Introduction (Shijing)
The Shijing (also known as Shih ching, Book of Odes, Book of Songs, Classic of Poetry, and Classic of Odes) is an anthology of over 300 poems and songs dating from as early as the twelfth century B.C.E. One of the most influential texts in the Chinese tradition, it was canonized in the early Han dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD) as one of the Five Classics. As such, the text became a key component of the educational curriculum. Candidates for official posts had to demonstrate their mastery of the text in civil service examinations. Over the centuries, this canonical status gave rise to an enormous body of annotations, commentaries and interpretations.
A fair number of the poems included in the Shijing are spoken by women. No one knows, unfortunately, whether these poems were actually the work of female poets or of men who assumed a feminine voice. The selections recommended below only touch on the variety of situations and perspectives on life observed in this extraordinary book. Each poem suggests the limitations of the female experience in ancient China at the same time that it emphasizes a different phase in a woman’s life and a strong individual’s response to a particular set of constraints. Although Confucian scholars produced arcane interpretations of even the simplest poems, for the purposes of these lessons, you need only attend to the immediate human situations they depict. As Stephen OWEN says in the essay cited below, “The songs of courtship and marriage are generally the least marked by cultural differences and perhaps the easiest of the songs for a modern Western reader to appreciate immediately” (“Foreword,” from The Book of Songs, translated by Arthur WALEY, p. xx).
The poems selected for this lesson mark a progression through easily recognizable stages of romantic attachment. Ode #20 (“Plop Fall the Plums”), spoken by a woman who seems to be growing increasingly nervous about her prospects for marriage, plays on a pun that links “plum” with “matchmaker.” Ode #26 (“Cypress Boat”) “is the song of a lady whose friends tried to marry her against her inclinations” (preface to Ode #26 in The Book of Songs, translated by Arthur WALEY. New York: Grove Press, 1996, p. 23). Each stanza is defined by a powerful image that should elicit interesting discussion: the boat tossed on the sea is a figure for the speaker’s agitated heart, and her honest resistance to the pressures brought upon her by others takes on different connotations as the poem elaborates on her plight. The reference to “an unwashed dress,” Stephen OWEN has pointed out, reinforces our sense of this woman’s strength of character — the problems are external and imposed on her from without. The young woman who speaks in #76 (“I Beg You, Zhong Zi”) has chosen her lover, but she remains mindful of her reputation. As Mr. Zhong gets closer and closer, she tries to put him off. Students will see that the battering down of natural protective walls (from willow to mulberry tree to hardwood) suggests a sexual advance that the speaker does not totally discourage. And in #94 (“Out in the Bushlands a Creeper Grows”), a willing woman has only praise for the beautiful man who has brought her satisfaction.
Instructor Readings (Shijing)
*** Most important
*** OWEN, Stephen. “Foreword.” In The Book of Songs, translated by Arthur WALEY. New York: Grove Press, 1996. Pages xii-xxv.
** WATSON, Burton. “Introduction.” In The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry:
*** YU, Pauline. The Book of Songs, in Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide For Teaching edited by Barbara Stoler MILLER. New York: Sharpe, 1994. Pages 211-221.
** YU, Pauline. The Reading of Imagery in the Chinese Poetic Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Student Readings (Shijing)
Selections from the Shijing . Translator Arthur WALEY’s titles are given.
#20 "Plop Fall the Plums"
Translations from The Chinese Classics, vol. 4 by James LEGGE (1898) are available on the University of Virginia Website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/chinese/shijing/AnoShih.html
If you wish to use a hard copy of the text and are unable to locate the Legge version, another excellent source is Stephen OWEN, edited and translated, An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911 (New York: W.W. Norton: 1996).
Student Activity (Shijing)
Try to generate discussion and allow students to see that they can make personal connections with these materials. These literary explorations do not lend themselves to single, “right” answers.
Comparative Opportunities (Shijing)
Ballads are very teachable. A few of the Chinese Odes work well set against Egyptian love lyrics, which (at least in the translation suggested below) tend to be less schematic as well as less strait-laced, so the comparison encourages a wide-ranging discussion of how cultural sensibilities evolve. The Chinese poems evoke a world of anxious women in a cold climate; the linen-clad aristocrats of the Egyptian poems enjoy themselves a great deal more. Students can often identify with each.
FOSTER, John L., trans. Love Songs of the New Kingdom. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.
FOSTER, John L., trans. Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001. See particularly “Love, how I’d love to slip down to the pond” and “I was simply off to see Nefrus my friend.”
Section II: Selections from Heian and Kamakura Women’s Writing
Instructor’s Introduction (Heian and Kamakura Women's Writing)
The Heian period of Japanese history (794-1185) was an aristocratic age during which women were influential members of the imperial court. In this respect the era bears some similarity to the twelfth century in Western Europe, when worship of the Virgin Mary and the ideals of courtly love glorified women — at least according to the norms approved by the dominant patriarchal culture of the time. During this epoch in Japan, the language of politics — the language of men — was Chinese. In a broad sense, the rise of the Japanese vernacular during the Heian period parallels the development of vernacular literature in English and in the Romance languages, a long process that continued over many centuries, beginning in the West in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In the case of Heian Japan, however, vernacularization started somewhat earlier and was largely the work of a group of women writers. The impact of these writers on Japanese culture remained unparalleled in the West until European and American women began to write novels in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Ladies-in-waiting in the courts and highborn women in the capital and the provinces spent their days writing poetry and keeping diaries. Their nights were dedicated to other pursuits, which were difficult for them to discuss aloud. Thus poems and diaries became crucial vehicles for self-expression; indeed, the earliest diaries simply introduced poems of one’s own composition, sent to friends as delicate records of the emotions that fueled these women’s lives.
SEI Shonagon (ca. 965 C.E.- ca. 1010 C.E.) was among the best known of these women writers, and her Makura no soshi (translated as The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon) initiated the genre known as zuihitsu, or “random writings.” As the selections assigned below demonstrate, zuihitsu were eclectic collections of personal writings on topics as various as the changing seasons, romantic encounters, and even lists of “elegant things.” Sei was a lady-in-waiting at the imperial court, and her writings hint at the complex place of women during this period of literary efflorescence.
Though an innovator, Sei was hardly the first woman to make a significant contribution to Japan’s literary history. ONO no Komachi (mid-9th century) was ranked among the country’s Six Poetic Geniuses (Rokkasen) by KI no Tsurayuki (ca. 872-945 C.E.), who compiled Japan’s first anthology of poetry, the Kokinshu, or Collection of Poems from Ancient and Modern Times. Commissioned by the Emperor Daigo (r. 897-930 C.E.) and completed by about 905, the Kokinshu is a collection of poems authored by some of early Japan’s best-known writers. Of the 120 named poets represented in the anthology almost thirty were women. Foremost among these was Ono, who contributed eighteen poems. Eight of these have been assigned here.
The third student reading is drawn from a later period of Japanese history. Lady Nijo’s memoirs begin with the loss of her virginity in the year 1271, when she was fourteen years old. A lady of the court who took several lovers, she eventually became a Buddhist nun, but hardly a reclusive one; the later chapters of her book tell of visits to shrines and meetings with a wide range of personalities. Although she writes with a keen appreciation for Heian culture, she is a product of the Kamakura period (1185-1333). Life in Kamakura Japan — so named because the period’s military government was based in the city of Kamakura — was somewhat rougher than during its Heian predecessor. This gruff quality was reflected in much of the period’s literature, which tended to either celebrate martial qualities or retreat into a Buddhist detachment from the everyday world and its uncertainties. Gone, to a great extent, were the more feminine sensibilities of Heian high culture. This was a feudal age when women’s participation was greatly reduced, and, in at least in terms of what has been preserved, women’s literary output was also less prominent. The aristocracy was impoverished and warriors’ daughters were less likely to be literary in their pursuits.
Instructor Readings (Heian and Kamakura Women's Writing)
*** Most important
*** The Confessions of Lady Nijo. Translated by Karen BRAZELL. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976.
*** KAMENS, Edward, ed. Approaches to Teaching Murasaki Shikibu’s ‘The Tale Of Genji.’ New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1993.
*** “Lyric text: Japanese,” In Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching, edited by Barbara Stoler MILLER. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1993. Pages 376-377.
** MCCULLOUGH, Helen Craig. Brocade by Night: ‘Kokin Wakashu’ and theCourt Style in Japanese Classical Poetry. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
** MORRIS, Ivan I. The World of the Shining Prince: Court Life in Ancient Japan. New York: Knopf, 1964.
** “The Vocabulary of Japanese Aesthetics I.” Sources of Japanese Tradition: Vol. I. 2 nd Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Student Readings (Heian and Kamakura Women's Writing)
A selection of poems by the esteemed women poet ONO no Komachi (mid-ninth century, Heian period), from the Kokinsh u (compiled in 905). Kokin Wakashu: The First Imperial Anthology of Japanese Poetry. Translated and annotated by Helen Craig MCCULLOUGH. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985. See especially poems #113 (p. 113), 552 (p. 126), 553 (p. 126), 635 (p. 142), 656 (p. 146), 657 (p. 146), 658 (p. 146), 797 (p.174).
SEI Shonagon (ca. 965 – ca. 1010). The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon (ca. 1001). Translated and edited by Ivan MORRIS. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
The Confessions of Lady Nijo. Translated by Karen BRAZELL. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976. Pages 3-12; notes (pages 265-266).
Student Activity (Heian and Kamakura Women's Writing)
The Kokinshu poems are short enough to have students read them aloud. You may organize students into groups and ask them to work on different sets of poems, since the anthology’s principle of organization, grouping poems by different authors in thematic units (celebrating the seasons or reflecting on certain moods and activities), is itself worthy of discussion and promotes comparison-contrast exercises. Discuss prominent images in the poems; the management of tone (even in translation); and perhaps ask students to compose their own 31-syllable poems about a topic related to love, or the seasons, in the style of the Kokinshu poems.
You may want to set questions about them for an electronic forum discussion as an alternative to or an extension of the activities mentioned above. Here are some sample questions designed to show the “relevance” of these apparently arcane materials to our own lives.
Comparative Opportunities (Heian and Kamakura Women's Writing)
Heian and Kamakura readings work well with medieval European literature. The role of women writers and the attitudes toward female sexuality provide natural areas for contrast. Good essay topics elicit interesting student writing. For example, ask students to compare ideas about adultery in The Confessions of Lady Nijo with some of Marie de FRANCE’s lais or Chaucer’s tales (notably The Miller’s Tale or The Wife of Bath’s Tale).
Section III: Selections from the Work of Gu Ruopu
Instructor’s Introduction (Gu Ruopu)
Surveys of world literature often include units on the emergence of learned ladies in the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. The very accessible texts offered below add GU Ruopu (KO Jo P’u) to the likes of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Madame de SABLE, and Mary WOLLSTONECRAFT. A great deal of research in the last few decades has brought to light a wealth of writing by elite, educated women in the late Ming and Qing (Ch’ing) dynasties, roughly contemporaries of the women mentioned above. In choosing GU Ruopu to represent the accomplishments of female intellectuals in late imperial China, one may want to emphasize the care she takes to portray herself as a wife and mother. Using her family responsibilities as protective cover, she exemplifies the opportunities for well-born women to participate in poetry societies and immerse themselves in cultural pursuits. Gu was followed in these activities by four generations of her family’s women. In previous centuries, respectable women had little contact with talented women artists, who were often courtesans. By the sixteenth century, opportunities for women increased and the strict boundaries that had separated women into mutually exclusive categories began to break down. Dorothy KO’s book, cited under “Further Reading,” shows how the rise of itinerant female teachers brought many types of women into rewarding contact with each other.
Instructor Readings (Gu Ruopu)
*** CHANG, Kang-i Sun and Haun SAUSSY, eds. Women Writers of Traditional China: An Anthology of Poetry and Criticism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
*** MANN, Susan and Yu-Yin CHENG, eds. Under Confucian Eyes: Writings on Gender in Chinese History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
*** WIDMER, Ellen and Kang-i Sun CHANG, eds. Writing Women in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Student Readings (Gu Ruopu)
GU Ruopu. “ When I Hired a Teacher to Instruct the Girls, Someone Ridiculed Me, So as a Joke I have Written This Retort to Explain Matters.” Translated by Maureen ROBERTSON. In Women Writers of Traditional China: An Anthology of Poetry and Criticism, edited by Kang-i Sun CHANG and Haun SAUSSY. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. Pages 309-310. download as PDF doc
GU Ruopu. “ Letter to My Sons.” Translated by Dorothy KO. In Under Confucian Eyes: Writings on Gender in Chinese History, edited by Susan MANN and Yu-Yin CHENG. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Pages 151-52. download as PDF doc
Student Activity (Gu Ruopu)
Ask students to compare and contrast the values associated with daughters and with sons. Educated by her own family when she was girl, then widowed at a relatively early age, Gu was further instructed in classical learning by her father-in-law so that she could prepare her two sons to qualify for the civil service. Here are some questions that one might pose:
Comparative Opportunities (Gu Ruopu)
Opportunities for cross-cultural comparisons here include the work of Sor Juana de la Cruz (1648-1695), Madame de SABLE (1599-1678), Madame de SEVIGNE (1626-1696), and Mary WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797). In her Reply to Sor Filotea de la Cruz (1691) Sor Juana, a Mexican nun, wrote an astonishing defense of a woman’s right to pursue the life of an intellectual. Madame de SABLE is a representative of the brilliant salonierres of seventeenth-century France; not only did she entertain the intellectual luminaries of her era, she also composed sententious maxims that encapsulated truths about human behavior. Her contemporary, Madame de SEVIGNE, is best known for her witty letters. Mary WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-97), the great English feminist, wrote novels, travel diaries, and compiled anthologies of readings for children. Her most influential work, however, is A Vindication of the Rightsof Woman, a response to a plan drawn up by Talleyrand in 1791, in the optimistic early days of the French Revolution, that excluded women from universal public education.
Sor Juana’s Reply to SorFilotea de la Cruz (1691), an apologia for a woman of intellect, or excerpts from Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), would be effective texts for use alongside Gu’s work. The emphasis here is on the education of women. As we move closer to the modern day, we see women taking intellectual control of their own destinies; their attachments to men matter less and their social engagement with each other counts for more.
Intra-cultural comparisons may be drawn with The Story of the Stone (also known as The Dream ofthe Red Chamber) published in 1791, a novel by a Chinese man, CAO Xueqin, with an extraordinary sensitivity to the experience of talented women. Students who have read portions of this book might be asked to write a paper comparing the feverish poetic sensibility of LIN Daiyu (a fictional creation) with the sober, self-effacing strategies adopted by GU Ruopu, a real woman who lived around the time in which Cao’s narrative is set (he lived from 1715-1763, and writes—like Proust—about the period of his childhood).
Section I: Selections from the Shijing
EBREY, Patricia Buckley. Confucianism and Family Rituals in Imperial China: A Social History of Writing about Rites. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
FRANKEL, Hans H. The Flowering Plum and the Palace Lady: Interpretations of Chinese Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.
Section II: Selections from Heian and Kamakura Women’s Writing
ACKROYD, Joyce. “Women in Feudal Japan.” Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan 7 (1959): 31-68.
MORRIS, Mark. “Waka and Form, Waka and History.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 46, no. 2 (1986): 551-610.
WAKITA, Haruko. Introduction and translation by Suzanne GAY. “Marriage and Property in Premodern Japan From the Perspective of Women’s History.” Journal of Japanese Studies 10, no.1 (1984): 73-99.
Section III: Selections from the Work of GU Ruopu
CAO, Xueqin (TS’AO Hsueh-ch’in). The Story of the Stone. Trans. David HAWKES and John MINFORD. 5 vols. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1973-86.
KO, Dorothy. Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
ROBERTSON, Maureen. “Voicing the Feminine: Constructions of the Gendered Subject.” Late Imperial China 13, no. 1 (1992): 63-110.
WIDMER, Ellen. “The Epistolary World of Female Talent in Seventeenth-Century China.” Late Imperial China 10, no. 2 (1989): 1-43.
TANCOCK, Leonard W. Madame de Sevigne: Selected Letters. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1982.